Inventors & Inventions (Great Lives from History)

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He first described a proposal for such a system in , but it wasn't until August of that the first web site was published and online. The World Wide Web that Berners-Lee developed was comprised of the first web browser, server and hypertexting. He later found the Dyson company to develop improved and technologically advanced household appliances. So far, his company has debuted a bladeless fan, a hair dryer, robotic vacuum cleaner and many other products.

He also established the James Dyson Foundation to support young people to pursue careers in technology. The James Dyson award is given to students who come up with promising new designs. Hedy Lamarr is often recognized as an early Hollywood starlet with film credits such as Algiers and Boom Town. As an inventor, Lamarr made significant contributions to radio and technology and systems.

During World War II, she invented radio-guidance system for torpedoes.

History of the telephone - Wikipedia

The frequency-hopping technology has been used to develop of Wi-Fi and Bluetooth. It's no coincidence that some of the most famous inventors come from all walks of life. Henry Ford was a savvy business entrepreneur. James Naismith, the inventor of basketball, was a physical education teacher. But what they all had in common was an idea and vision to deliver what they felt would make the world a better place.

Share Flipboard Email. Mary Bellis, known by some as CalmX, was an experimental artist, film director and producer, video game content creator, and freelance writer for some 18 years. The U. By , over three million phones in the U. By , the U. The relatively good performance of the U. Murray to test the 1st commercial telephone line across the Atlantic ocean. What turned out to be the most popular and longest lasting physical style of telephone was introduced in the early 20th century, including Bell's model telephone. A carbon granule transmitter and electromagnetic receiver were united in a single molded plastic handle, which when not in use were placed in a cradle in the base unit.

The circuit diagram [28] of the model shows the direct connection of the receiver to the line, while the transmitter was induction coupled, with energy supplied by a local battery. The coupling transformer, battery, and ringer were in a separate enclosure from the desk set. The rotary dial in the base interrupted the line current by repeatedly but very briefly disconnecting the line 1 to 10 times for each digit, and the hook switch in the center of the circuit diagram permanently disconnected the line and the transmitter battery while the handset was on the cradle.

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Starting in the s, the base of the telephone also enclosed its bell and induction coil, obviating the need for a separate ringer box. Power was supplied to each subscriber line by central office batteries instead of the user's local battery which required periodic service. For the next half century, the network behind the telephone grew progressively larger and much more efficient, and after the rotary dial was added, the instrument itself changed little until Touch-Tone signaling started replacing the rotary dial in the s.

The history of mobile phones can be traced back to two-way radios permanently installed in vehicles such as taxicabs, police cruisers, railroad trains, and the like. Later versions such as the so-called transportables or "bag phones" were equipped with a cigarette-lighter plug so that they could also be carried, and thus could be used as either mobile two-way radios or as portable phones by being patched into the telephone network.

Ring and W. Rae Young proposed hexagonal cell transmissions for mobile phones. Cellular technology was undeveloped until the s, when Richard H. Frenkiel and Joel S. Engel of Bell Labs developed the electronics.

Meanwhile, the inauguration of the TAT-1 cable and later international direct dialing were important steps in putting together the various continental telephone networks into a global network. On 3 April , Motorola manager Martin Cooper placed a cellular-phone call in front of reporters to Dr. Joel S. This began the era of the handheld cellular-mobile phone. Cable-television companies began to use their fast-developing cable networks with ducting under the streets of the United Kingdom in the late s to provide telephony services in association with major telephone companies.

One of the early cable operators in the UK, Cable London , connected its first cable telephone customer in about The telephone was instrumental to modernization.

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It aided in the development of suburbs and the separation of homes and businesses, but also became a reason for the separation between women occupying the private sphere and men in the public sphere. Women were regarded as the most frequent users of the telephone. It enabled women to work in the telecommunications sector as receptionists and operators. Their autonomy was celebrated as women were able to develop new relationships and nurture pre-existing ones in their private lives.


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Social relations are essential in the access and usage of telephone networks. Both historically and currently, women are predominantly responsible for the phone calls that bridge the public and private sphere, such as calls regarding doctor's appointments and meetings. Internet Protocol IP telephony, also known as Internet telephony or Voice over Internet Protocol VoIP , is a disruptive technology that is rapidly gaining ground against traditional telephone network technologies.

IP telephony uses a broadband Internet service to transmit conversations as data packets. In addition to replacing the traditional plain old telephone service POTS systems, IP telephony also competes with mobile phone networks by offering free or lower cost service via WiFi hotspots. VoIP is also used on private wireless networks which may or may not have a connection to the outside telephone network. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Electrical telegraph. Main article: Invention of the telephone. This section needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Further information: Telephone switchboard. Main article: Timeline of the telephone. See also: History of telecommunication. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. January Learn how and when to remove this template message. See also: IP telephony. February Learn how and when to remove this template message. Bell Telephone Memorial , a major monument dedicated to the invention of the telephone Canadian Parliamentary Motion on Alexander Graham Bell Carbon microphone Charles Bourseul - claimed inventor of the telephone Elisha Gray Elisha Gray and Alexander Bell telephone controversy History of mobile phones History of telecommunication History of videotelephony Innocenzo Manzetti Invention of the telephone Johann Philipp Reis - claimed inventor of the telephone Antonio Meucci - claimed inventor of the telephone Private branch exchange Push-button telephone Telephone exchange The Telephone Cases , a series of court decisions in the U.

Retrieved 15 January This work in turn cites: Richard Waller and edited by R.

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Archived from the original on 24 May Retrieved 20 May Acoustic Telephones , TelefoonMuseum. This article in turn cites: Kolger, Jon. Curl as told by him to E. A Telephone in ? The Museum of Retro-Technology.

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Retrieved 17 October London: Imperial College Press. House of Representatives. One theory proposes that during Samhain, Celtic people would leave out food to placate the souls and ghosts and spirits traveling the Earth that night. Eventually, people began dressing up as these otherworldly beings in exchange for similar offerings of food and drink. Other researchers speculate that the candy bonanza stems from the Scottish practice of guising , itself a secular version of souling. Some sources argue that our modern trick-or-treating stems from belsnickling , a tradition in German-American communities where children would dress in costume and then call on their neighbors to see if the adults could guess the identities of the disguised guests.

In one version of the practice, the children were rewarded with food or other treats if no one could identify them.