Marine geography- GIS for the oceans and seas
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Dr Lisa Wedding
Pollution and vessel strikes are significant threats to marine wildlife and habitats too. Equally, the effects of climate change will be seen on a regional scale. The ACCESS MSP tool has been developed to address a unique combination of climatic and geopolitical issues and is designed to provide a data integration system for the purposes of identifying or mitigating against possible future events or activities. The tool allows the integrated study of information from all sectors under review: hydrocarbon exploitation, shipping and fisheries, and the associated human activities related to and within these sectors.
Using the concepts of Ecosystem-Based Management, recognition of sectoral uses and practical methodologies of data and relationships analyses with a powerful geographical information system, users of the MSP tool can visualise and assess in a qualitative way the factors relevant to sustainable development in the region, as they are affected by long-term climate change. Marine spatial planning offers a transboundary, holistic approach to the governance of living and non-living resources.
For this to succeed, there needs to be commitment at both national and regional levels. The involvement of stakeholders and users of the Arctic, including pan-national governance elements such as the Arctic Council , is essential. Truly effective marine spatial planning needs to be considered at a multinational, Pan-Arctic scale. Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. Download PDF.
Open Access. First Online: 26 October Introduction As sea-ice cover in the Arctic diminishes, the potential for future economic exploitation increases, most notably in shipping, oil and gas exploitation, fisheries and tourism.
Retreating summer sea ice is opening up new areas of the Arctic for potential economic exploitation. The U. These changes, coupled with ever improving technology for gas and oil extraction in deeper water, could well lead to increased hydrocarbon exploitation in the Arctic.
Interactions and potential conflicts between the hydrocarbon sector and other economic activities in the Arctic are likely to be complex and may result in negative environmental impacts Fig. Open image in new window. Hyperlinks from shape files provide additional information relating to the selected layer. Visualising the spatial extent of sectoral activity and how these overlap provides a means of better managing those areas, and where environmentally sensitive areas are impacted by economic activity, the MSP tool can provide a means of planning the use of those areas.
The four plates along the top illustrate the different maritime zones and regimes including the spatial extent of state sovereignty and of large marine ecosystems LMEs. Legislative and regulatory documents are incorporated and can be accessed via the web and hyperlinks, and provide an accessible library of all relevant regulations for ACCESS partners.
Retreating summer sea ice is allowing access to more areas of the Arctic Ocean both within and beyond national jurisdiction. Future economic development of these areas from a range of users may lead to possible cross-sectoral conflicts over the region as a whole Fig. Increased hydrocarbon exploitation is recognised as a significant possible future challenge to balancing socioeconomic effects and environmental protection in the Arctic The Pew Environment Group Decreased ice cover as well as improved technology would allow oil and gas extraction in ever deeper water.
Although a number of non-binding guidelines have been developed, for example by the Arctic Council, there is no regional legislation for hydrocarbon exploitation, and regulation will be covered by the individual state within whose EEZ the development takes place. However, oil spills present the largest threat to the Arctic marine environment and have the potential to spread over many hundreds of kilometres and jurisdictional boundaries. The modelled results suggest that climate change does not lead to significant changes to cod stock from the present day, but do highlight that this area will continue to be a significant fisheries resource.
Cod stocks are predicted to be high around the boundary between the Norwegian and Russian EEZs and the Loophole area of high seas between Norway and Russia, and an area which has been subject to regional fishing disputes , and also further east in Russian waters offshore Novaya Zemlya, highlighting the need for transboundary management.
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The establishment of the Joint Norwegian-Russian Fisheries Commission in the s has contributed towards sustainable management of the Barents Sea fisheries. Ardron, J. Gjerde, S. Pullen, and V. Marine spatial planning in the high seas. Marine Policy — CrossRef Google Scholar.
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The importance of marine spatial planning in advancing ecosystem-based sea use management. Ehler, C. Marine spatial planning: A step-by-step approach toward ecosystem-based management.
Welcome to the Cyberworld of "Deepsea Dawn"
Google Scholar. Pan-arctic marine spatial planning: An idea whose time has come. In Arctic marine governance , ed. Tedsen, et al. Berlin: Springer. Gautier, D. Bird, R.
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Pitman, et al. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas in the arctic. Science — Halpern, B. Walbridge, K. Selkoe, C. Kappel, F. Micheli, C. Bruno, C. Ebert, et al. A global map of human impact on marine ecosystems.
Marine Geography: GIS for the Oceans and Seas
Arctic opening: Opportunity and risk in the high north , MacNeil, M. Graham, J. Cinner, N. Dulvy, P. Loring, S. Jennings, N. Polunin, A. Fisk, et al.
Transitional states in marine fisheries: Adapting to predicted global change. Maes, F. The international legal framework for marine spatial planning. Providing instruction for managing, converting, analyzing and displaying oceanographic station data, marine meteorological data, GIS-compatible marine and coastal data or model simulations, and mapped remote sensing imagery. This new version is infinitely easier to edit or add exercises, which can be familiar HTML docs with figure files, or PDFs -- anything that an internet browser can visualize.
Oceans - Geography - Oxford Bibliographies
Please let the editors know if you have problems or find errors HERE. Manually scan the Tables of Contents below. MDL Table of Contents top level. MDL Extras. MDL Table of Contents detailed. Even if your work is obviously in the far north or south, avoid problems by avoiding words that can be misinterpreted. This series of exercises includes all the basic tools for making maps of marine and coastal areas, using existing datafiles vector or grid or new ones made by you. If you are not certain of your exact AOI, then begin these exercises with a very large area, say 3 times as wide in longitude and 3 times as tall in latitude as your first general guess for the AOI.
After a bit of experience, you'll decide on a final smaller AOI.